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Auditory Strategies

Definitions of literacy have expanded to include auditory skills as another type of literacy. Many students with visual impairments access information from text through auditory means.


Braille is a code used by people who are blind or visually impaired to read and write. It is a tactile system through which letters and words are represented using raised dots.


Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) can result in a wide range of visual functioning. It is important to know which phase a child is in when planning instructional strategies and adapting literacy materials.


Students with a combined vision and hearing loss have a wide range of learning styles and educational needs. Some may read print, while others read braille, and many have additional disabilities.

Dual Media

Dual Media is the use of both print and braille as modes for reading and writing. Some eye conditions in which there is a gradual loss of vision may be a factor in choosing this option.

Emergent Literacy

Language skills and concept development are the foundation of literacy. These begin at birth and must be well-established before formal instruction in print or braille begins.

English Language Learners

Students with limited English proficiency may need additional support to develop English language literacy. Instructional strategies depend on whether the student is already proficient in another language.

General Literacy

Speaking, listening, object communication, sign language, concept development, and an understanding of one's environment and experiences are all part of a more inclusive view of literacy

Learning Media Assessment

The Learning Media Assessment (LMA) offers a framework for determining the best instructional medium for a given student, such as braille, print, dual media (both print and braille), auditory, tactile or some combination.

Math Literacy

Mathematical Literacy includes numeracy (the ability to recognize numerals), a basic number sense, and a grasp of simple mathematical concepts.

Multiple Disabilities

Literacy includes recognizing objects, pictures, or other symbols, and using them to communicate. Making choices, anticipating events, following simple recipes, creating or "reading" lists, and other forms of self-expression are all part of functional literacy.

Orientation and Mobility

Orientation and Mobility refers to the field of instruction designed to teach individuals who are blind or visually impaired to travel safely and efficiently from one location to another.


There are a variety of ways in which students with low vision can access print, and often they will use different strategies in different situations.

Struggling Readers

Struggling readers may have learning disabilities, such as dyslexia. Emotional and behavioral challenges, such as anxiety or ADHD, may affect also literacy skills.


Writing includes both the process of writing (handwriting, typing, braille), as well as the content of the message being expressed. It can also include pictures, objects, and tactile symbols.